How it works?

Male Fertility

How it works?

An array of events takes place in the male reproductive system to carry out fertilization with the help of different male hormones. Hormones are the chemical substances that carry out specific functions in the body. The three major hormones important in the male reproductive system are

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)- They are required for carrying out spermatogenesis, the process that produces sperms.
  • Luteinizing hormone (LH)- They stimulate the production of testosterone, which in turn produces sperm cells.
  • Testosterone- Apart from sperm production, testosterone contributes to giving male characteristics to the man, including muscle mass, strength, bone mass, fat distribution, facial hair growth, voice change as well as sex drive.

Where is sperm produced?

Sperms produce in the testicles. When a male reaches puberty, millions of sperm cells are produced every day. Each sperm is around 0.05 millimeters in length.

How is sperm produced?

Testicles comprise coiled masses of tiny tubes called seminiferous tubules. They are the home to germ cells that are converted into sperms by the action of male sex hormones, including testosterone.

Spermatogenesis is a process of sperm production wherein germ cells divide and change into a small tadpole-like structure, with a head and a short tail. The head contains the genetic material called genes, while the work of the tail is to push the entire sperm body into a tube, called epididymis, located behind the testes. The sperms complete their development and attain maturity at epididymis. As soon as they mature, they move to the vas deferens. It takes around 2.5 months for a germ cell to develop into a mature sperm cell that is capable of fertilizing the egg.

When a man is sexually aroused, a sequence of events takes place in which the sperms mix with seminal fluid produced by the prostate gland and form semen. Semen is the result of secretions from male reproductive organs. There are millions of sperms in semen along with different acids, enzymes, and chemical compounds like prostaglandin, potassium, zinc, etc.

As a result of sexual arousal, the semen is ejaculated, i.e., pushed out of the penis through the urethra. When it happens inside the vaginal tract of the female, the sperm reaches the egg and fertilizes it, causing conception.