Male Fertility


The male reproductive system comprises different organs that carry out specific functions. These are:

  • Production, maintenance, and transportation of male reproductive cells called sperms as well as a protective fluid called semen.
  • Discharging the sperms in the female reproductive tract during intercourse.
  • Production of male sex hormones that carry out maintenance of the entire male reproductive system.

The external organs of the male reproductive system include the following

Penis- Penis is cylindrical and has three parts- root, which attaches the penis to the abdominal wall, body, and glans. Glans is the end part of the penis, conical in shape and often called the head of the penis. It is covered with a layer of loose skin called foreskin. There are multiple sensitive nerve endings in the glans.

When a man is sexually aroused, the circular chambers, made of soft spongy tissues get filled with blood, making the penis erect and rigid. It allows the penis to enter the vagina during sexual intercourse. When the man reaches orgasm during the sexual encounter, the penis expels semen through glans. Semen contains the male reproductive cells, called sperms.

Scrotum- Scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind and below the penis and contains testicles. It performs multiple functions and is called the climate control system for testes. There are several nerve endings, blood vessels, and special muscles in the scrotum as well.

Scrotum needs to maintain its temperature slightly cooler than the normal body temperature for the testes to produce sperms. The special muscles allow the scrotum to move itself closer to the body to bring warmth and further from the body to make it cool to carry out the production of sperms normally.

Testicles- Testicles, also called testes, lie in the scrotum and supported by spermatic chord. Generally, there are two testes in a male. The function of testicles is to make the primary male sex hormone called testosterone. Along with this, they are also responsible for generating sperms. Sperm cells are produced by seminiferous tubules, which are coiled masses of tubes in the testes. Now let us take a glance over the internal male reproductive organs, also called accessory organs.

Epididymis- It is a long coiled tube present on the backside of the testicle that transports and stores sperm cells.

Vas Deferens- It is a long, muscular tube that carries mature sperms to the urethra so that they may ejaculate outside the body during the orgasm. Ejaculatory Ducts- The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra and are formed by the fusion of vas deferens and seminal vesicles.

Urethra- It carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. Apart from urine, the urethra also ejaculates sperms when the man reaches orgasm. Seminal Vesicles- They are the sac-like pouches at the base of the bladder and are responsible for producing a sugar-rich fluid, fructose. This fluid acts as an energy booster for the sperms and helps them move. Most of the ejaculatory fluid contains this fluid.

Prostate Gland- It is responsible for nourishing the sperms and contributing additional fluid to the ejaculation.

Bulbourethral Glands- They are also called Cowper’s Glands and are located just below the prostate gland. They produce a clear, viscous fluid that lubricates the urethra and neutralizes the acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine.