Female Fertility


Female reproductive anatomy includes different parts inside and outside the body that carries out several functions. Right from the production of female egg cells, to their transportation to the site of fertilization, each part works in synchronization that leads to conception.

Conception usually occurs in the fallopian tubes where a sperm fertilizes the egg. Later, the fertilized egg is implanted into the wall of the uterus, and thus begins the initial stage of pregnancy. Apart from this, the female reproductive system also produces female sex hormones that are responsible for maintaining the reproductive cycle.

The female anatomy is composed of following internal reproductive organs


Vagina is also called the birth canal of the body as it joins the cervix, the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body. Different layers of tissues compose the walls of the vagina. Mucosal tissue, layers of smooth muscle tissue, collagen, and elastic fibers give structure and elasticity to the vagina. The walls of the vagina release different fluids that keep the vaginal area moist. The same fluids increase the lubrication at the time of sexual intercourse.


Uterus, also called the womb, is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ in the female reproductive system. It is an inverted, hollow, pear-shaped organ located between the rectum and the bladder. The major function of the uterus is to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus is ready to be delivered.

The uterus is divided into four major parts:


It is the broad upper area of the uterus through which the fallopian tubes are connected.


It is the main and central part of the uterus that starts right from the level of the fallopian tubes and continues downwards where the cavity begins to narrow.


The lower neck region of the uterus is called isthmus. It allows the sperms to enter the uterus through the cervix and menstrual blood to exit.


It is the lowest part of the uterus that extends downwards from the isthmus and opens into the vagina.

Fallopian Tubes

Fallopian tubes, also called oviduct or uterine tube is a pair of long and narrow ducts located in the abdominal cavity of the female body. Each fallopian tube is around 10-13 cm long, 0.5 - 1.2 cm thick in diameter and lined with a layer of the mucous membrane.

The primary function of fallopian tubes is to transport eggs from the ovary to the central channel of the uterus. In addition, it provides a suitable environment for fertilization. Conception, the fertilization of the egg by sperm normally occurs in the fallopian tube from where the fertilized egg moves to the uterus and implants in the inner lining of the uterine wall.


Ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands, located on either side of the uterus. The major function of ovaries is to nurture and prepare oocytes (eggs) and hormones for the process of ovulation. Once an egg is released, it migrates down into the fallopian tube to the uterus to complete the process of fertilization. Ovaries also serve to regulate the menstrual cycle. Each ovary is about 4 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1.5 cm thick and is held in place by several ligaments. Each egg develops in its own shell called a follicle.