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UTIs are amongst the majority infections that occur in humans. A UTI may occur at any place in the urinary tract. Most UTIs frequently involves the urethra and the bladder, in lower tract. Nevertheless, UTIs can also involves the ureters and kidneys, in upper tract. Symptoms of UTI includes a strong urge to frequently urinate, the burning micturation, and strong smelling urine with the associated pelvic pain in the women
Urinary incontinence is a inadvertent loss, leakage of urine. Stress incontinence occurs when a physical activity such as sneezing, coughing or heavy lifting increases pressure on the bladder. This form of stress incontinence is not correlated to the psychological stress. Stress incontinence is commoner in women than in men. Symptoms of stress incontinence is when a person leaks urine when he coughs, sneezes, laugh’s, lift something heavy or while he/she exercises
Urge incontinence occurs when the person has an unexpected urge to urinate. In urge incontinence, the bladder contracts causing urine to seep out through the sphincter muscles while the bladder is in closed position. The causes of this condition includes inflammation, stones, an obstruction present at the opening of bladder, an enlarged prostate in men, bladder cancer and diseases of the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, an injury to the nervous system, such as trauma to spinal cord or a stroke
Pelvic organ prolapse is descent of one or additional pelvic structures (bladder, uterus, vagina) from their usual anatomic location towards the vaginal opening. Women of almost all the age groups may be affected, although this condition is more common in older age group. The cause can be accounted to the loss of the pelvic support from multiple factors, including direct injury to the levator ani, as well as neurologic injury from stretching of pudendal nerves that may happen with the vaginal childbirth. The previous hysterectomy for pelvic organ prolapse; ethnicity; and an increase in the intra-abdominal pressure from chronic coughing, straining with constipation, or repeated heavy lifting may also contribute to the pelvic organ prolapse. A feeling of bulging or protrusion in vagina is the most explicit symptom. The evaluation includes the systematic pelvic examination. Management options for women with the suggestive prolapse includes examination, pelvic floor muscle training, mechanical support and surgery.
Vaginoplasty is the surgical procedure that results in the reconstruction of the vagina. It is a type of genitoplasty. Pelvic organ prolapse is frequently treated with one or more surgeries to repair vagina. Occasionally vaginoplasty is needed following treatment or removal of malignant growths or abscesses in order to restore a normal vaginal structure and function. Surgical procedures are performed to modify congenital defects of the vagina, urethra and rectum. Frequently, a vaginoplasty is performed to repair the vagina and its attached structures due to the trauma or injury. It can reduce the size of the access in the vagina or alter the appearance of the vulva.
Urinary fistulas are abnormal openings within the urinary tract organ or an abnormal connection between a urinary tract organ and other organ. Symptoms of a bladder fistula include dysuria, burning micturation and recurrent urinary tract infections.
Labiaplasty, also known as labiaplasty or labia reduction, is a cosmetic surgical procedure that reshapes and resizes the labia majora and labia minora (outer and inner lips of the external female genitalia). It is sometimes called as female genital plastic surgery, female genital rejuvenation surgery or female genital cosmetic surgery.
Hymenoplasty, which is also known as hymenorrhaphy, hymen repair, hymen reconstruction, hymen surgery, hymen restoration, and revirgination, is the major popular term relating surgeries to reinstate the integrity of the hymen.
Perineoplasty (also known as perineorrhaphy) denotes the plastic surgery measures used to alter clinical conditions (such as damage, defect, deformity) of vagina and anus. Among the vagino-anal conditions resolute by perineoplasty are vaginal itching, vaginal looseness, damaged perineum, incontinence, dyspareunia vaginismus, genital warts, vulvar vestibulitis, and decreased sexual sensation. Depending upon the vagino-anal condition to be treated, there are two types of perineoplasty procedure: the first procedure tightens the perineal muscles and the vagina; second one helps to loosen the perineal muscles.
There are also surgeries or laser treatments that tightens muscles of vagina or improve its appearance. The term vaginal rejuvenation includes basically everything that changes or alters vaginal anatomy