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Infertility is the inability to conceive after one period of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is a frequent problem experienced by 10% of the women age between 15 to 44 years. Infertility is rising alarmingly due to the changing lifestyles. Infertility among men is commonly attributed to a low sperm count, varicocele, damage to the sperm or certain diseases. Damage to fallopian tube, problems with ovulation are also the most frequent causes of infertility among females.
An infertility evaluation is frequently initiated following with one year of regular unprotected intercourse in women below 35 years of age and after six months of unprotected intercourse in women aged for 35 years and older. Nevertheless, the evaluation might be initiated earlier in women with the irregular menstrual cycles or recognized by the risk factors for infertility, such as a history of a pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis or reproductive tract malformations. The basic evaluation is performed by experienced obstetrician-gynecologist.
Controlled ovarian stimulation a method used in an assisted reproductive technologies involves the use of fertility medications to stimulate an ovulation by multiple ovarian follicles. Here the woman is given an ovulation induction tablets and injections from the second or third day of menstrual cycle and follicular study (study the growth of eggs) is done on alternate days from the day 9/10 of the menstrual cycle till ovulation. Once the leading follicle is between 18 – 20 mm, Injection HCG is given to trigger follicles to rupture and release the eggs and the couples are advised to have a timed coitus. Normally, most couples are able to conceive within a period of 3-6 months of this simple treatment. If they don't conceive then we advise them to go for IUI or IVF.
Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a fertility treatment that involves inserting sperm within a woman's uterus to facilitate the fertilization. The main goal of IUI is to increase number of sperm reaching fallopian tubes and subsequently increasing the chance of fertilization. Indications of IUI include unexplained infertility, low sperm count, mild endometriosis, decreased sperm motility and issues with the ejaculation or erection
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common and efficient type of assisted reproductive technology. It comprises of the fertilization of the egg under laboratory conditions following which the embryos are transferred to the uterus This procedure is performed in cases of damaged fallopian tubes, male factor infertility involving decreased sperm count, conditions of a premature ovarian failure and genetic disorders.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is an expansion of conventional employed in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. This process comprises of a sperm injection into the centre of the egg. This method prepares gametes for obtention of embryos that might be transferred to a maternal uterus. Indications of ICSI include oligozoospermia, Azoospermia, non-male subfertility and failed fertilization.
Oocyte Cryopreservation, a technical name for egg freezing, is a conservation of mature eggs subsequent to hormonal stimulation to attain pregnancy at a later period of time.
Embryo Cryopreservation also referred to as “embryo freezing,” involves preserving embryos at a low temperatures so that they can be thawed and used later. An embryo comprises of an egg and a sperm that is previously fertilized and contains genetic component both from male and female parents.
Sperm freezing is often presented to men for many various reasons. A few may undergo chemo or radiation therapy, testicular surgery, and would like to preserve their future fertility. Also, age affects the quality of sperm; therefore its believed that by cryopreservation, the frozen tissue remains viable for up to 12 years.